B-type lamins are major constituents of the nuclear lamina in all metazoan cells, yet have specific roles in the development of certain cell types. Although they are speculated to regulate gene expression in developmental contexts, a direct link between B-type lamins and developmental gene expression in an in vivo system is currently lacking. Here, we identify lamin B1 as a key regulator of gene expression required for the formation of functional olfactory sensory neurons. By using targeted knockout in olfactory epithelial stem cells in adult mice, we show that lamin B1 deficient neurons exhibit attenuated response to odour stimulation. This deficit can be explained by decreased expression of genes involved in mature neuron function, along with increased expression of genes atypical of the olfactory lineage. These results support that the broadly expressed lamin B1 regulates expression of a subset of genes involved in the differentiation of a specific cell type.