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Review
, 60, 1-5

The Burden of Diabetes: Emerging Data

Review

The Burden of Diabetes: Emerging Data

Paola Maffi et al. Dev Ophthalmol.

Abstract

In recent times, the global prevalence of diabetes has increased substantially, reaching 8.3% in 2014, which corresponds to 387 million patients. Studies in Europe and USA have shown increased incidence of type 1 Diabetes (T1D) over time at a rate of 3-5% per year. Another most worrying feature of the rapid increase of diabetes is the emergence of type 2 Diabetes (T2D) in children, adolescents, and young adults. The well-known behavioral risks factors and epigenetic mechanisms recently observed require an integrated approach to prevent T2D. Diabetes significantly influences the patient' survival, quality of life, and development of organ system degeneration. Epidemiological studies have shown increased mortality in diabetic patients, especially women, which increased approximately fivefold, whereas cardiovascular mortality increased 20- to 30-fold when compared to the normal population. Diabetes is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and vision loss in developed countries. Around 40% of T1D and T2D start on renal replacement therapy. While after 40 years of diabetes, the cumulative proportion of patients with any retinopathy and advanced retinopathy was 84.1 and 50.2%, respectively. However, the most prevalent chronic complication of diabetes is neuropathy. Distal Symmetric Polyneuropathy occurs in at least 20% of people with T1D after 20 years and in 10-15% of newly diagnosed T2D, increasing to 50% after 10 years. Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy may be present in up to 60% of patients after 15 years and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.

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