Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) characterized by heartburn and/or regurgitation symptoms is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders managed by gastroenterologists and primary care physicians. There has been an increase in GERD prevalence, particularly in North America and East Asia. Over the past three decades proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been the mainstay of medical therapy for GERD. However, recently there has been an increasing awareness amongst physicians and patients regarding the side effects of the PPI class of drugs. In addition, there has been a marked decline in the utilization of surgical fundoplication as well as a rise in the development of nonmedical therapeutic modalities for GERD. This review focuses on different management strategies for GERD, optimal management of refractory GERD with special focus on available endoluminal therapies and the future directions.
Keywords: Gastroesophageal reflux; Heartburn; Proton pump inhibitors; Surgery.