Effect of methylparaben in Artemia franciscana

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Sep:199:98-105. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2017.04.004. Epub 2017 Apr 17.


In this study, the toxicity of methylparaben (MeP) an emerging contaminant, was analysed in the sexual species Artemia franciscana, due to its presence in coastal areas and marine saltworks in the Mediterranean region. The acute toxicity (24h-LC50) of MeP in nauplii was tested and its chronic effect (9days) evaluated by measuring survival and growth under two sublethal concentrations (0.0085 and 0.017mg/L). Also, the effect on several key enzymes involved in: antioxidant defences (catalase (CAT) and gluthathion-S-transferase (GST)), neural activity (cholinesterase (ChE)) and xenobiotic biotransformation (carboxylesterase (CbE), was assessed after 48h under sublethal exposure. The results of acute exposure indicate that MeP is harmful to A. franciscana (24h-LC50=36.7mg/L). MeP causes a decrease in CAT activity after 48h exposure to both concentration tested, that points out at the oxidative stress effect of MeP in A. franciscana. However, no significant effect on ChE, CbE and GST activities was found. In addition, MeP does not affect survival and growth in chronic exposure at the sublethal concentrations tested. The results of this study indicate that MeP is not a threat for A. franciscana under the experimental conditions used. Additional studies should be done considering long-term exposure and reproduction studies to analyse the potential risk of MeP as emerging contaminant in marine and hypersaline environments.

Keywords: Aquaculture; Artemia franciscana; Biodiversity; Biomarkers; Methylparaben; Toxicity.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aquaculture
  • Artemia / drug effects*
  • Artemia / growth & development
  • Artemia / metabolism
  • Arthropod Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Arthropod Proteins / metabolism
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Biotransformation
  • Carcinogens / toxicity
  • Catalase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Endocrine Disruptors / toxicity*
  • Larva / drug effects*
  • Larva / growth & development
  • Larva / metabolism
  • Lethal Dose 50
  • Morphogenesis / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Parabens / toxicity*
  • Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / toxicity*
  • Survival Analysis
  • Toxicity Tests, Acute
  • Toxicity Tests, Chronic
  • Toxicokinetics
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity*


  • Arthropod Proteins
  • Biomarkers
  • Carcinogens
  • Endocrine Disruptors
  • Parabens
  • Preservatives, Pharmaceutical
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • methylparaben
  • Catalase