Ultrasensitive field-effect transistor-based biosensors using quasi-two-dimensional metal oxide semiconductors were demonstrated. Quasi-two-dimensional low-dimensional metal oxide semiconductors were highly sensitive to electrical perturbations at the semiconductor-bio interface and showed competitive sensitivity compared with other nanomaterial-based biosensors. Also, the solution process made our platform simple and highly reproducible, which was favorable compared with other nanobioelectronics. A quasi-two-dimensional In2O3-based pH sensor showed a small detection limit of 0.0005 pH and detected the glucose concentration at femtomolar levels. Detailed electrical characterization unveiled how the device's parameters affect the biosensor sensitivity, and lowest detectable charge was extrapolated, which was consistent with the experimental data.
Keywords: field-effect transistor; glucose sensors; oxide semiconductor; pH sensors; quasi-two-dimensional.