The Ser and Thr kinase AKT, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), was discovered 25 years ago and has been the focus of tens of thousands of studies in diverse fields of biology and medicine. There have been many advances in our knowledge of the upstream regulatory inputs into AKT, key multifunctional downstream signaling nodes (GSK3, FoxO, mTORC1), which greatly expand the functional repertoire of AKT, and the complex circuitry of this dynamically branching and looping signaling network that is ubiquitous to nearly every cell in our body. Mouse and human genetic studies have also revealed physiological roles for the AKT network in nearly every organ system. Our comprehension of AKT regulation and functions is particularly important given the consequences of AKT dysfunction in diverse pathological settings, including developmental and overgrowth syndromes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and neurological disorders. There has also been much progress in developing AKT-selective small molecule inhibitors. Improved understanding of the molecular wiring of the AKT signaling network continues to make an impact that cuts across most disciplines of the biomedical sciences.
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