Profiles Drug Subst Excip Relat Methodol. 2017:42:287-338. doi: 10.1016/bs.podrm.2017.02.006. Epub 2017 Apr 6.


Propranolol is a noncardioselective β-blocker. It is reported to have membrane-stabilizing properties, but it does not own intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. Propranolol hydrochloride is used to control hypertension, pheochromocytoma, myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. It is also used to control symptoms of sympathetic overactivity in the management of hyperthyroidism, anxiety disorders, and tremor. Other indications cover the prophylaxis of migraine and of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension. This study provides a detailed, comprehensive profile of propranolol, including formulas, elemental analysis, and the appearance of the drug. In addition, the synthesis of the drug is described. The chapter covers the physicochemical properties, including X-ray powder diffraction, pK, solubility, melting point, and procedures of analysis (spectroscopic, electrochemical, and chromatographic). In-depth pharmacology is also presented (pharmacological actions, therapeutic dosing, uses, Interactions, and adverse effects and precautions). More than 60 references are given as a proof of the abovementioned studies.

Keywords: Description; Method of analysis; Pharmacokinetics; Physical characteristics; Propranolol; Spectral properties; Synthesis.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists* / chemistry
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists* / pharmacokinetics
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists* / pharmacology
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists* / therapeutic use
  • Drug Stability
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Molecular Structure
  • Propranolol* / chemistry
  • Propranolol* / pharmacokinetics
  • Propranolol* / pharmacology
  • Propranolol* / therapeutic use


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Propranolol