Genome-wide identification, characterization of the MADS-box gene family in Chinese jujube and their involvement in flower development

Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 21;7(1):1025. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-01159-8.


MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are involved in plant development control (particularly in floral organogenesis) and signal transduction pathways, though a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is still missing. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Chinese jujube. Based on phylogenetic analyses, 52 jujube MADS-box genes were classified into 25 MIKCC-type, 3 MIKC*-type, 16 Mα, 5 Mβ and 3 Mγ genes. 37 genes were randomly distributed across all 12 putative chromosomes. We found that the type II genes are more complex than the type I genes and that tandem duplications have occurred in three groups of MADS-box genes. Meanwhile, some gene pairs in the same clade displayed similar or distinct expression profiles, suggesting possible functional redundancy or divergence. MIKCC-type genes exhibited typical temporal and spatial expression patterns in the four whorls of floral tissues. The expressions of B, C/D and E-type genes were significantly suppressed in phyllody as compared to flower, providing valuable evidence for their involvement in flower development. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the MADS-box family in jujube, and provides valuable information for elucidating molecular regulation mechanism of jujube flower development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Flowers / genetics
  • Flowers / growth & development*
  • Flowers / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Profiling / methods*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Genome, Plant
  • MADS Domain Proteins / genetics*
  • MADS Domain Proteins / metabolism
  • Multigene Family
  • Phylogeny
  • Ziziphus / genetics
  • Ziziphus / growth & development
  • Ziziphus / metabolism*


  • MADS Domain Proteins