MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are involved in plant development control (particularly in floral organogenesis) and signal transduction pathways, though a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is still missing. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Chinese jujube. Based on phylogenetic analyses, 52 jujube MADS-box genes were classified into 25 MIKCC-type, 3 MIKC*-type, 16 Mα, 5 Mβ and 3 Mγ genes. 37 genes were randomly distributed across all 12 putative chromosomes. We found that the type II genes are more complex than the type I genes and that tandem duplications have occurred in three groups of MADS-box genes. Meanwhile, some gene pairs in the same clade displayed similar or distinct expression profiles, suggesting possible functional redundancy or divergence. MIKCC-type genes exhibited typical temporal and spatial expression patterns in the four whorls of floral tissues. The expressions of B, C/D and E-type genes were significantly suppressed in phyllody as compared to flower, providing valuable evidence for their involvement in flower development. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the MADS-box family in jujube, and provides valuable information for elucidating molecular regulation mechanism of jujube flower development.