Purpose of review: This paper aims to discuss the interactions between inflammatory cytokines, immune cells, and heart failure (HF). The association of heart failure with inflammation has led to multiple studies on anti-inflammatory agents in acute and chronic heart failure.
Recent findings: Recent findings have implicated leukocytes subclasses and multiple inflammatory mediators in the progression of heart failure and cardiovascular disease. Studies have discovered further details on the interaction between immune cells-particularly macrophages and lymphocytes-and inflammation. There are both cell-mediated and cytokine-mediated pathways of inflammation, which are interconnected. Additionally, a number of markers have been used and studied in heart failure disease progression. In this review, we discuss inflammatory biomarkers and immune cell mediators involved in HF. We will focus on the correlations and role of these inflammatory mediators in the genesis of HF. We will also discuss the evidence on beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory agents in the setting of chronic HF.
Keywords: Cytokines; Heart failure; Immune cells; Inflammation; Leukocytes; Mediators.