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. 2017 May;56(5):383-390.
doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2017.02.006. Epub 2017 Mar 6.

Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring

Free PMC article

Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring

Magdalena Janecka et al. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. .
Free PMC article

Erratum in

  • Corrigendum.
    J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017 Jul;56(7):628. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2017.05.013. Epub 2017 Jun 21. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2017. PMID: 28647018 Free PMC article. No abstract available.


Objective: Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population.

Method: We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models.

Results: In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes.

Conclusion: Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population.

Keywords: advanced paternal age; autism; neurodevelopment; schizophrenia; social development.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Illustration of putative effects of advanced paternal age (APA) on the trajectory of social development. Note: Although a considerable proportion of offspring of older fathers do not meet the criteria for clinical diagnosis of autism/schizophrenia (red line), their developmental profile is shifted from the one observed in typically developing individuals.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Trajectories of change in the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) prosocial scores over time in different parental age groups. Note: Graphs show results for the fully adjusted model, by paternal age categories.

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