Recombinant clones specific for ribosomal protein (r-protein) S8 have been isolated from a Xenopus laevis cDNA bank. Sequence analysis shows that they are of two types, derived from two different gene copies originating from gene duplication. The two cDNAs differ in several silent sites and code for the same S8 protein whose complete amino acid sequence has been derived. Sequence comparison of S8 mRNAs with those for other X. laevis r-proteins, has revealed interesting similarities in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions. These could be involved in r-protein synthesis regulation which we have previously shown to occur mainly at post-transcriptional and translational levels.