Design of new osteoinductive biomaterials to reproduce an optimized physiological environment capable of recruiting stem cells and instructing their fate towards the osteoblastic lineage has become a priority in orthopaedic surgery. This work aims at evaluating the bioactivity of BMP combined with human plasma fibronectin (FN/BMP) delivered in solution or coated onto titanium-hydroxyapatite (TiHA) surfaces. Herein, we focus on the comparison of in vitro osteogenic efficacy in mouse C2C12 pre-osteoblasts of three BMP members, namely: BMP-2, BMP-6 and BMP-7. In parallel, we evaluated the molecular binding strength between each BMP with FN using the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technology. The affinity of BMPs for FN was found totally different and dependent on BMP type. Indeed, the combination of FN with BMP-2 on TiHA surfaces potentiates the burst of gene-mediated osteogenic induction, while it prolongs the osteogenic activity of BMP-6 and surprisingly annihilates the BMP-7 one. These results correlate with FN/BMP affinity for TiHA, since BMP-6>BMP-2>BMP-7. In addition, by analyzing the osteogenic activity in the peri-implant environment, we showed that osteoinductive paracrine effects were significantly decreased upon (FN/BMP-6), as opposed to (FN/BMP-2) coatings. Altogether, our results support the use of FN/BMP-6 to develop a biomimetic microenvironment capable to induce osteogenic activity under physiological conditions, with minimum paracrine signalization.
Statement of significance: The originality of our paper relies on the first direct comparison of the in vitro osteogenic potential of three osteogenic BMPs (BMP-2, -6 and -7) combined with native human plasma fibronectin delivered in solution or coated by laser transfer onto titanium hydroxyapatite surfaces. We confirm that BMP association with fibronectin enhances the osteogenic activity of BMP-2, -6 and -7, but with essential discrepancies, depending on the BMP member, and in agreement with the affinity of BMPs for fibronectin. Moreover, we bring elements to explain the origin of the BMP-2 medical life-threatening side-effects by analyzing in vitro paracrine effects. Finally, this work supports the alternative use of FN/BMP-6 to induce osteogenic activity under physiological conditions, with minimum side effects.
Keywords: BMPs; Functional coatings; Human plasma fibronectin; In vitro; Osteogenesis.
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