Pharmacologically increasing collateral perfusion during acute stroke using a carboxyhemoglobin gas transfer agent (Sanguinate™) in spontaneously hypertensive rats

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2018 May;38(5):755-766. doi: 10.1177/0271678X17705567. Epub 2017 Apr 24.


Similar to patients with chronic hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) develop fast core progression during middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) resulting in large final infarct volumes. We investigated the effect of Sanguinate™ (SG), a PEGylated carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) gas transfer agent, on changes in collateral and reperfusion cerebral blood flow and brain injury in SHR during 2 h of MCAO. SG (8 mL/kg) or vehicle ( n = 6-8/group) was infused i.v. after 30 or 90 min of ischemia with 2 h reperfusion. Multi-site laser Doppler probes simultaneously measured changes in core MCA and collateral flow during ischemia and reperfusion using a validated method. Brain injury was measured using TTC. Animals were anesthetized with choral hydrate. Collateral flow changed little in vehicle-treated SHR during ischemia (-8 ± 9% vs. prior to infusion) whereas flow increased in SG-treated animals (29 ± 10%; p < 0.05). In addition, SG improved reperfusion regardless of time of treatment; however, brain injury was smaller only with early treatment in SHR vs. vehicle (28.8 ± 3.2% vs. 18.8 ± 2.3%; p < 0.05). Limited collateral flow in SHR during MCAO is consistent with small penumbra and large infarction. The ability to increase collateral flow in SHR with SG suggests that this compound may be useful as an adjunct to endovascular therapy and extend the time window for treatment.

Keywords: Collateral perfusion; hypertension; infarction; ischemic stroke; reperfusion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carboxyhemoglobin / pharmacology*
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects*
  • Collateral Circulation / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred SHR
  • Reperfusion
  • Stroke / physiopathology*
  • Vasodilator Agents / pharmacology*


  • Vasodilator Agents
  • Carboxyhemoglobin