Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship of lifestyle factors and neurocognitive functioning in older adults with vascular risk factors and cognitive impairment, no dementia (CIND).
Methods: One hundred sixty adults (M [SD] = 65.4 [6.8] years) with CIND completed neurocognitive assessments of executive function, processing speed, and memory. Objective measures of physical activity using accelerometry, aerobic capacity determined by exercise testing, and dietary habits quantified by the Food Frequency Questionnaire and 4-Day Food Diary to assess adherence to the Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets were obtained to assess direct effects with neurocognition. Potential indirect associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile also were examined.
Results: Greater aerobic capacity (β = 0.24) and daily physical activity (β = 0.15) were associated with better executive functioning/processing speed and verbal memory (βs = 0.24; 0.16). Adherence to the DASH diet was associated with better verbal memory (β = 0.17). Greater high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (βs = -0.14; -0.21) and Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (β = -0.18; -0.18) were associated with poorer executive functioning/processing speed and verbal memory. Greater stroke risk partially mediated the association of aerobic capacity with executive functioning/processing speed, and verbal memory and greater inflammation partially mediated the association of physical activity and aerobic fitness, with verbal memory.
Conclusions: Higher levels of physical activity, aerobic fitness, and adherence to the DASH diet are associated with better neurocognitive performance in adults with CIND. These findings suggest that the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits could reduce the risk of neurocognitive decline in vulnerable older adults.
Clinical trial registration: NCT01573546.