Insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors in Lao PDR

PLoS One. 2017 Apr 24;12(4):e0175984. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175984. eCollection 2017.

Abstract

Knowledge on insecticide resistance in Anopheles species is a basic requirement to guide malaria vector control programs. In Lao PDR, vector control relies on insecticide residual spraying (IRS) and impregnated bed-nets (ITNs) with the use of pyrethroids. Here, the susceptibility of Anopheles species, including several malaria vectors (An. maculatus and An. minimus), to various insecticides was investigated in ten provinces of Lao PDR through a north-south transect. Bioassays were performed on field caught female mosquitoes using the standard WHO susceptibility tests with DDT (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%) and permethrin (0.75%). In addition, the DIIS6 region of the para-type sodium channel gene was amplified and sequenced to identify knockdown resistance mutations (kdr). Resistance to DDT and permethrin was detected in suspected malaria vectors, such as An. nivipes and An. philippinensis in Lao PDR. Resistance to the formerly used DDT was found in a population of An. maculatus s.l. from Luang Prabang province. No resistance to pyrethroids was found in primary vectors, indicating that these insecticides are still adequate for malaria vector control. However, high resistance levels to pyrethroids was found in-vector species and reduced susceptibility to permethrin in An. minimus and An. maculatus was reported in specific localities which raises concerns for pyrethroid-based control in the future. No kdr mutation was found in any of the resistant populations tested hence suggesting a probable role detoxification enzymes in resistance. This study highlights the necessity to continue the monitoring of insecticide susceptibility to early detect potential occurrence and/or migration of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Lao PDR.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anopheles / genetics*
  • DDT / pharmacology
  • Insect Vectors / genetics*
  • Insecticide Resistance / genetics*
  • Insecticides / pharmacology
  • Laos
  • Malaria / prevention & control*
  • Mutation
  • Nitriles / pharmacology
  • Permethrin / pharmacology
  • Pyrethrins / pharmacology
  • Sodium Channels / genetics

Substances

  • Insecticides
  • Nitriles
  • Pyrethrins
  • Sodium Channels
  • decamethrin
  • Permethrin
  • DDT

Grant support

This work was supported by contract n° 12INI212 with Initiative 5%, http://www.initiative5pour100.fr/en/, French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.