Long-term operation of Kickuth-type constructed wetland applied to municipal wastewater treatment in temperate climate

Environ Technol. 2018 May;39(9):1133-1143. doi: 10.1080/09593330.2017.1323014. Epub 2017 May 12.


The purpose of this paper is to discuss the problem of changes of effectiveness of Kickuth-type constructed wetland with subsurface flow applied to domestic wastewater treatment. This study is based on an example of a wetland 3000 m2 in surface, serving 800 inhabitants, located in Poland. The results of chemical analysis showed that after an initial year of 'start-up time', the efficiency of pollutant removal gradually increased to reach an apex in the 6th year of operation. Such maximum efficiency continued up to the 10th year of operation; afterwards it gradually dropped. Moreover, after 12 years of operation, a serious problem with overland flow was observed, which indicated the porous media clogging processes.

Keywords: Constructed wetland; Kickuth design; common reed; effectiveness; wastewater treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Climate
  • Poland
  • Waste Disposal, Fluid*
  • Wastewater*
  • Wetlands*


  • Waste Water