MV-NIS is an Edmonston lineage oncolytic measles virus expressing the human sodium iodide symporter-a means for monitoring by non-invasive imaging of radioiodine. Patients with relapsed, refractory myeloma who had explored all other treatment options were eligible for this Phase I trial. Cohort 1 was treated with intravenous MV-NIS, and Cohort 2 received cyclophosphamide 2 days prior to MV-NIS. Thirty-two patients were treated. Cohort 1 initially enrolled to four dose levels without reaching maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and subsequently to two higher dose levels when improved virus manufacture technology made it possible. MTD was not reached in Cohort 1, and TCID50 1011 is the dose being used in a Phase II trial of single agent MV-NIS. Grade 3-4 adverse events in both cohorts at all dose levels were: neutropenia (n=9); leukocyte count decreased (n=5); thrombocytopenia (n=2); and CD4 lymphocytes decreased, anemia and lymphopenia (each n=1). MV-N RNA sequences were amplified from gargle specimens, blood and urine. 123I scans were positive in eight patients. One patient achieved a complete response; transient drops in serum free light chains were seen in other patients. MV-NIS is capable of replicating before being cleared by the immune system. Oncolytic viruses offer a promising new modality for the targeted infection and destruction of disseminated myeloma.