A case-control study was carried out to explore possible risk factors of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) in Taiwan. One hundred thirty-one PHC patients and 207 hospital control patients were interviewed and blood samples were collected for blood type and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection marker tests. Eighty-three percent of the PHC patients were found to be hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive as compared with 21.0% of the control patients with an odds ratio (OR) of 21.5. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive status increased the risk of PHC. No significant association was observed between erythrocyte genetic markers and PHC, except c of the Rh system, which was significantly lower in the PHC cases. As compared with the control patients, the PHC patients had a higher proportion with a history of liver diseases and more siblings affected with liver diseases. However, the variables such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, peanut consumption, frequent intake of raw fish, heart diseases, peptic ulcer, malaria, hypertension, diabetes, color blindness, G-6-PD deficiency, surgical operation, blood transfusion, and liver diseases of parents and children were not found to be associated with PHC.