Genetic and biochemical analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing a disruption of the nuclear gene (AAC1) encoding the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier has revealed a second gene for this protein. The second gene, designated AAC2, has been isolated by genetic complementation and sequenced. AAC2 contains a 954-base pair open reading frame coding for a protein of 318 amino acids which is highly homologous to the AAC1 gene product except that it is nine amino acids longer at the NH2 terminus. The two yeast genes are highly conserved at the level of DNA and protein and share identity with the ADP/ATP carriers from other organisms. Both genes complement an ADP/ATP carrier defect (op1 or pet9). However, the newly isolated gene AAC2 need be present only in one or two copies while the previously isolated AAC1 gene must be present in multiple copies to support growth dependent on a functional carrier protein. This gene dosage-dependent complementation combined with the high degree of conservation suggest that these two functionally equivalent genes may be differentially expressed.