Luminex Solid-Phase Crossmatch for De Novo Donor-Specific Antibodies in Living-Donor Related Transplants

Exp Clin Transplant. 2017 Aug;15(4):394-399. doi: 10.6002/ect.2016.0178. Epub 2017 Apr 27.


Objectives: There are no reports of de novo donor-specific antibody monitoring by a low-cost solid-phase crossmatch assay using donor lysate after renal transplant.

Materials and methods: We prospectively evaluated 121 complement-dependant cytotoxicity crossmatch-negative living-donor kidney transplant recipients for development of de novo donor-specific antibodies (class I and II HLA) by solid-phase crossmatch Luminex assay after transplant.

Results: Of 121 recipients in our study group, 26 (21.5%) developed de novo donor-specific antibody within 3 months after transplant. Fifteen (58%) of these 26 recipients developed class II de novo donor-specific antibody, 8 patients (30%) developed class I, and 3 (12%) developed both class I and class II. Of the remaining 95 patients (79%) who did not develop de novo donor-specific antibody, 6 (33.3%) had antibody-mediated rejection with glomerulitis (2 with C4d-positive disease). Donor-specific antibody was detected by Luminex solid-phase crossmatch in 18 patients (5 with class I, 11 with class II, and 2 with both class I and II), all with no evidence of clinical rejection. Development of de novo donor-specific antibody detected by solid-phase crossmatch was associated with more acute rejection (31% in de novo donor-specific antibody-positive group versus 19% in the negative group). The positive group had more antibody-mediated rejection (75% of acute rejections), whereas only 33.3% of acute rejections in the negative group were antibody-mediated rejection. Of 12 patients with antibody-mediated rejection, 9 were C4d negative (75%) and were diagnosed by donor-specific antibody positivity detected by solid-phase cros?match testing and histologic findings. The use of donor lysate in solid-phase crossmatch assays is more economical than the single-antigen bead Luminex assay (per test cost of US $45.20 vs $403.20).

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
  • Family*
  • Glomerulonephritis / immunology
  • Graft Rejection / immunology
  • Graft Survival
  • HLA Antigens / immunology*
  • Histocompatibility Testing*
  • Histocompatibility*
  • Humans
  • Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Isoantibodies / blood*
  • Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects
  • Kidney Transplantation / methods*
  • Living Donors*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Biomarkers
  • HLA Antigens
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Isoantibodies