Current progress in orchid flowering/flower development research

Plant Signal Behav. 2017 May 4;12(5):e1322245. doi: 10.1080/15592324.2017.1322245. Epub 2017 Apr 27.


Genetic pathways relevant to flowering of Arabidopsis are under the control of environmental cues such as day length and temperatures, and endogenous signals including phytohormones and developmental aging. However, genes and even regulatory pathways for flowering identified in crops show divergence from those of Arabidopsis and often do not have functional equivalents to Arabidopsis and/or existing species- or genus-specific regulators and show modified or novel pathways. Orchids are the largest, most highly evolved flowering plants, and form an extremely peculiar group of plants. Here, we briefly summarize the flowering pathways of Arabidopsis, rice and wheat and present them alongside recent discoveries/progress in orchid flowering and flower developmental processes including our transgenic Phalaenopsis orchids for LEAFY overexpression. Potential biotechnological applications in flowering/flower development of orchids with potential target genes are also discussed from an interactional and/or comparative viewpoint.

Keywords: Flower development; flowering; orchid; orchid biotechnology; orchid transformation.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Biotechnology
  • Flowers / genetics
  • Flowers / growth & development*
  • Flowers / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Orchidaceae / genetics
  • Orchidaceae / growth & development
  • Orchidaceae / metabolism
  • Oryza / genetics
  • Oryza / growth & development
  • Oryza / metabolism
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / metabolism
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / genetics
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / growth & development
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / metabolism


  • Plant Proteins