Background: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is a technique for managing mild to moderately obese patients. We aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes, reproducibility, and predictors of weight response in a large multicenter cohort.
Methods: Patients who underwent ESG between January 2013 and December 2015 in three centers were retrospectively analyzed. All procedures were performed using the Apollo OverStitch device (Apollo Endosurgery, Austin, TX). We performed per protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses, where patients lost to follow-up were considered failures. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed.
Results: We included 248 patients (mean age 44.5 ± 10 years, 73% female). Baseline BMI was 37.8 ± 5.6 kg/m2. At 6 and 24 months, 33 and 35 patients were lost to follow-up, respectively. At 6 and 24 months, %TBWL was 15.2 [95%CI 14.2-16.3] and 18.6 [15.7-21.5], respectively. Weight loss was similar between centers at both follow-up intervals. At 24 months, % of patients achieving ≥10% TBWL was 84.2 and 53% with PP and ITT analyses, respectively. On multivariable linear regression analysis, only %TBWL at 6 months strongly predicted %TBWL at 24 months (adjusted for age, gender, and baseline BMI, β = 1.21, p < 0.001). The odds of achieving ≥10%TBWL at 24 months if a patient achieved <10%TBWL at 6 months is 0.18 [0.034-0.84]. Five (2%) serious adverse events occurred.
Conclusions: ESG effectively induces weight loss up to 24 months in moderately obese patients. Failure to achieve adequate weight loss can be predicted early, and patients should be offered adjunctive therapies to augment it.
Keywords: Endoscopic; Gastric restriction; Stomach; Weight loss procedure.