Evaluating health risks posed by heavy metals to humans consuming blood cockles (Anadara granosa) from the Upper Gulf of Thailand

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Jun;24(17):14605-14615. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9014-5. Epub 2017 Apr 27.


There is global concern about heavy metal contamination in the environment. Adverse health effects can be caused by heavy metals in contaminated food and water. Therefore, environmental monitoring studies and risk assessments should be conducted periodically. In this study, we measured levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in blood cockles (Anadara granosa) collected from three locations in the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Hazard quotients and hazard indices were calculated to evaluate the health risks posed by heavy metals in consumed blood cockles. Heavy metal concentrations in all of the blood cockle samples were lower than the relevant food standards. The hazard quotients and hazard indices were <1 in all three sampling areas, indicating that adverse health effects were not likely to be caused by exposure to heavy metals in blood cockles over a human lifetime.

Keywords: Anadara granosa; Hazard index (HI); Hazard quotient (HQ); Health risk; Heavy metals; Upper Gulf of Thailand.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arcidae*
  • Cardiidae
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Food Contamination*
  • Humans
  • Metals, Heavy / analysis
  • Metals, Heavy / toxicity*
  • Risk Assessment*
  • Seafood
  • Thailand
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity*


  • Metals, Heavy
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical