Peripheral neuropathy is increasingly recognized as a complication of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC), but the varied clinical features have been incompletely described. Thirty homosexual men with peripheral neuropathy were evaluated in this study. Twenty-one had ARC and nine had AIDS. Four distinct clinical syndromes were recognized: distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), mononeuropathy multiplex, and progressive polyradiculopathy. Four patients with clinical, electrophysiologic, and histologic evidence of CIDP and severe progressive weakness improved with plasma exchange, three regaining normal function.