Biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation were correlated with rotavirus vaccine responses in 68 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected (and 116 HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) African infants receiving pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in a clinical trial. Prevaccination, HIV-1+ infants had significantly higher concentrations of interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin1β, interleukin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 10 (IL-10), and soluble CD14 compared with HEU infants. Postvaccination concentrations of neutralizing antibodies to RV5 were negatively correlated with prevaccination concentrations of IL-10 (RV5 surface proteins G1 and P1) and IFNγ (G1) in the HIV-1+ infants, whereas antirotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were not. Heightened inflammation and immune activation in HIV-1+ infants did not alter IgA responses associated with protection from rotavirus disease.
Keywords: Perinatal HIV-1 infection; antiretroviral therapy; immune activation; inflammation; rotavirus vaccine.
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