Inflammation and Immune Activation in Antiretroviral-Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected African Infants and Rotavirus Vaccine Responses

J Infect Dis. 2017 Mar 15;215(6):928-932. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix060.


Biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation were correlated with rotavirus vaccine responses in 68 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected (and 116 HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) African infants receiving pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in a clinical trial. Prevaccination, HIV-1+ infants had significantly higher concentrations of interferon γ (IFNγ), interleukin1β, interleukin 2, interleukin 6, interleukin 10 (IL-10), and soluble CD14 compared with HEU infants. Postvaccination concentrations of neutralizing antibodies to RV5 were negatively correlated with prevaccination concentrations of IL-10 (RV5 surface proteins G1 and P1) and IFNγ (G1) in the HIV-1+ infants, whereas antirotavirus immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were not. Heightened inflammation and immune activation in HIV-1+ infants did not alter IgA responses associated with protection from rotavirus disease.

Keywords: Perinatal HIV-1 infection; antiretroviral therapy; immune activation; inflammation; rotavirus vaccine.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / blood
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Botswana
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV-1 / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / blood
  • Infant
  • Inflammation
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Rotavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Rotavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Tanzania
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe


  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokines
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Rotavirus Vaccines