Sequence of mouse hepatitis virus A59 mRNA 2: indications for RNA recombination between coronaviruses and influenza C virus

Virology. 1988 Oct;166(2):415-22. doi: 10.1016/0042-6822(88)90512-0.


The nucleotide sequence of the unique region of coronavirus MHV-A59 mRNA 2 has been determined. Two open reading frames (ORF) are predicted: ORF1 potentially encodes a protein of 261 amino acids; its amino acid sequence contains elements which indicate nucleotide binding properties. ORF2 predicts a 413 amino acids protein; it lacks a translation initiation codon and is therefore probably a pseudogene. The amino acid sequence of ORF2 shares 30% homology with the HA1 hemagglutinin sequence of influenza C virus. A short stretch of nucleotides immediately upstream of ORF2 shares 83% homology with the MHC class I nucleotide sequences. We discuss the possibility that both similarities are the result of recombinations and present a model for the acquisition and the subsequent inactivation of ORF2; the model applies also to MHV-A59-related coronaviruses in which we expect ORF2 to be still functional.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Base Sequence
  • Genes, Viral
  • Hemagglutinins, Viral / genetics
  • Influenzavirus C / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Murine hepatitis virus / genetics*
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics*
  • RNA, Viral / genetics
  • Recombination, Genetic


  • Hemagglutinins, Viral
  • RNA, Messenger
  • RNA, Viral

Associated data

  • GENBANK/M23256