Different Involvement of OAT in Renal Disposition of Oral Anticoagulants Rivaroxaban, Dabigatran, and Apixaban

J Pharm Sci. 2017 Sep;106(9):2524-2534. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2017.04.044. Epub 2017 Apr 26.


This study aimed to investigate the interactions of 3 anticoagulants, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran, with 5 human solute carrier transporters, hOAT1, hOAT3, hOCT2, hOATP1B1, and hOATP1B3. Apixaban inhibited hOAT3, hOATP1B1, and hOATP1B3, and rivaroxaban inhibited hOAT3 and hOATP1B3, with IC50 values of >20 and >5 μM, respectively. The effect of dabigatran was negligible or very weak, so significant drug interactions at therapeutic doses are unlikely. Specific uptake of rivaroxaban was observed only in human and mouse OAT3-expressing cells. The Km for mouse Oat3 (mOat3) was 1.01 ± 0.70 μM. A defect in mOat3 reduced the kidney-to-plasma concentration ratio of rivaroxaban by 38% in mice. Probenecid treatment also reduced the kidney-to-plasma concentration ratio of rivaroxaban in rats by 73%. Neither mOat3 defect nor probenecid administration in rats reduced the renal clearance of rivaroxaban. The uptake of rivaroxaban by monkey kidney slices was temperature dependent and inhibited by probenecid but not by tetraethylammonium. Taken together, organic anion transporters, mainly OAT3, may mediate basolateral uptake of rivaroxaban in kidneys. hOAT3 could be an additional factor that differentiates the potential drug-drug interactions of the 3 anticoagulants in the urinary excretion process in clinical settings.

Keywords: drug interactions; organic anion transporters (OAT); pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics; renal transport; solute transporters.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anticoagulants / metabolism
  • Anticoagulants / pharmacokinetics*
  • Anticoagulants / pharmacology
  • Biological Transport / drug effects
  • Dabigatran / metabolism
  • Dabigatran / pharmacokinetics*
  • Dabigatran / pharmacology
  • Drug Interactions
  • Female
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Haplorhini
  • Humans
  • Kidney / drug effects
  • Kidney / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Organic Anion Transporters / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Organic Anion Transporters / metabolism*
  • Pyrazoles / metabolism
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pyrazoles / pharmacology
  • Pyridones / metabolism
  • Pyridones / pharmacokinetics*
  • Pyridones / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Rivaroxaban / metabolism
  • Rivaroxaban / pharmacokinetics*
  • Rivaroxaban / pharmacology


  • Anticoagulants
  • Organic Anion Transporters
  • Pyrazoles
  • Pyridones
  • apixaban
  • Rivaroxaban
  • Dabigatran