Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of Cardamom (Elettaria repens (Sonn.) Baill) and its phytochemical analysis by 4D GCXGC TOF-MS

Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Jul;91:191-201. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.04.049. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Abstract

Elleteria repens is a large cardamom used in the culinary preparations. In the present study, we have evaluated in vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities E. repens hexane extract (ERH) exhibited DPPH and metal chelating activity with IC50 values of 464±28.3μg/ml, 199±7.2μg/ml whereas the reducing power and antioxidant activities are found to be 289±14.6 AAE/mg, 468±22.7 GAE/mg. The observed antioxidant activities could be correlated with metabolites such as polyphenol, flavonoid, and terpenoid group of compounds identified in hexane fraction of E. repens by 4D GCXGC TOF-MS. Further ERH was evaluated for its protective properties against macromolecules such as DNA, protein and lipid damage. The extract showed protection against H2O2 induced DNA damage and inhibited AAPH induced protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, ERH administration to rats at 50 and 100mg/kg inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema, and down-regulated cytokines such as COX-2, IL-6, and TNF-α and inhibited i-NOS mediated NO generation. E. repens also exhibited antioxidant effects by restoring SOD, catalase, GSH levels and inhibited lipid peroxidation in carrageenan challenged rats. Overall, the results suggest that E. repens may be useful in combating inflammation and oxidative stress.

Keywords: 4D GCXGC TOF-MS; Antiinflammatory activity; Antioxidant activity; COX-2; Elleteria repens; IL-6; TNF-α.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • DNA Damage
  • Diclofenac / pharmacology
  • Elettaria / chemistry*
  • Flavonoids / analysis
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Male
  • Mass Spectrometry / methods*
  • Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phytochemicals / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

Substances

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Biomarkers
  • Flavonoids
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Interleukin-6
  • Phenols
  • Phytochemicals
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Diclofenac
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases