Deoxyguanosine kinase, purified over 6000-fold from beef liver mitochondria by means of deoxyguanosine-3'-(4-aminophenyl phosphate)-Sepharose affinity chromatography, was nearly homogeneous. It phosphorylates only deoxyguanosine and deoxyinosine among the natural nucleosides, with apparent Km values of 4.7 and 21 microM, respectively. Among nucleoside analogs tested, only arabinosylguanine (Ki = 125 microM) and 8-aza-deoxyguanosine (Ki = 450 microM) competed with deoxyguanosine. The relative molecular mass of the enzyme is 56,000, as determined by equilibrium sedimentation, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis suggests two subunits of Mr 28,000. The pH optimum for enzyme activity is 5.5, but optimum enzyme stability is seen at pH 7.0. Triton X-100 increased the stability of the enzyme markedly. ATP is the best phosphate donor at pH 5.5, but pyrimidine triphosphates such as dTTP and UTP are more efficient donors at pH 7.4. The activation energy, at pH 5.5, was estimated to be 10.9 kcal/mol. Amino acid modification experiments suggest the involvement of arginine, cysteine, and probably histidine. The inactivation of the enzyme by modification of these amino acid residues was time and pH dependent. Both substrates protected the enzyme from inactivation in every case but that of photooxidation by Rose Bengal, where only deoxyguanosine prevented inactivation.