Model Free iPID Control for Glycemia Regulation of Type-1 Diabetes

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2018 Jan;65(1):199-206. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2017.2698036. Epub 2017 Apr 25.


Objective: The objective is to design a fully automated glycemia controller of Type-1 Diabetes (T1D) in both fasting and postprandial phases on a large number of virtual patients.

Methods: A model-free intelligent proportional-integral-derivative (iPID) is used to infuse insulin. The feasibility of iPID is tested in silico on two simulators with and without measurement noise. The first simulator is derived from a long-term linear time-invariant model. The controller is also validated on the UVa/Padova metabolic simulator on 10 adults under 25 runs/subject for noise robustness test.

Results: It was shown that without measurement noise, iPID mimicked the normal pancreatic secretion with a relatively fast reaction to meals as compared to a standard PID. With the UVa/Padova simulator, the robustness against CGM noise was tested. A higher percentage of time in target was obtained with iPID as compared to standard PID with reduced time spent in hyperglycemia.

Conclusion: Two different T1D simulators tests showed that iPID detects meals and reacts faster to meal perturbations as compared to a classic PID. The intelligent part turns the controller to be more aggressive immediately after meals without neglecting safety. Further research is suggested to improve the computation of the intelligent part of iPID for such systems under actuator constraints. Any improvement can impact the overall performance of the model-free controller.

Significance: The simple structure iPID is a step for PID-like controllers since it combines the classic PID nice properties with new adaptive features.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Insulin Infusion Systems*
  • Pancreas, Artificial*
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted*


  • Blood Glucose