Goodpasture's or anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease is classically characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies directed against the non-collagenous domain of the α3 chain of type IV collagen, targeting glomerular and alveolar basement membranes, and associated with rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis, with alveolar haemorrhage in over half the patients. However, there are increasing examples of variants or atypical presentations of this disease, and novel therapeutic options have been proposed, which nephrologists should be aware of. The pathophysiology of this condition has been understood through molecular analysis of the antibody-antigen interactions and the use of human leucocyte antigen-transgenic animals, while the association of anti-GBM antibodies with anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies and their combined impact on disease phenotype is increasingly recognized, providing some insights into the basis of glomerular damage and autoimmunity.
Keywords: AKI; Goodpasture's; anti-GBM; glomerulonephritis.
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