Molecular processes in an electrochemical clozapine sensor

Biointerphases. 2017 May 1;12(2):02B401. doi: 10.1116/1.4982709.


Selectivity presents a crucial challenge in direct electrochemical sensing. One example is schizophrenia treatment monitoring of the redox-active antipsychotic clozapine. To accurately assess efficacy, differentiation from its metabolite norclozapine-similar in structure and redox potential-is critical. Here, the authors leverage biomaterials integration to study, and effect changes in, diffusion and electron transfer kinetics of these compounds. Specifically, the authors employ a catechol-modified chitosan film, which the authors have previously presented as the first electrochemical detection mechanism capable of quantifying clozapine directly in clinical serum. A key finding in our present work is differing dynamics between clozapine and norclozapine once the authors interface the electrodes with chitosan-based biomaterial films. These additional dimensions of redox information can thus enable selective sensing of largely analogous small molecules.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Catechols / chemistry*
  • Chitosan / chemistry*
  • Clozapine / analysis*
  • Electrochemical Techniques*
  • Humans
  • Membranes, Artificial*


  • Catechols
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Chitosan
  • Clozapine
  • catechol