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Historical Perspectives of the Causation of Lung Cancer: Nursing as a Bystander


Historical Perspectives of the Causation of Lung Cancer: Nursing as a Bystander

Tracy A Ruegg. Glob Qual Nurs Res.


Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Less-known forces are involved in the etiology of lung cancer and have relevant implications for providers in ameliorating care. The purpose of this article is to discuss theories of causation of lung cancer using historical analyses of the evolution of the disease and incorporating related explanations integrating the relationships of science, nursing, medicine, and society. Literature from 160 years was searched and Thagard's model of causation networks was used to exhibit how nursing and medicine were significant influences in lung cancer causation theory. Disease causation interfaces with sociological norms of behavior to form habits and rates of health behavior. Historically, nursing was detrimentally manipulated by the tobacco industry, engaging in harmful smoking behaviors, thus negatively affecting patient care. Understanding the underlying history behind lung cancer causation may empower nurses to play an active role in a patient's health.

Keywords: cancer; epidemiology; medicine; nursing; tobacco and health.

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of Conflicting Interests: The author declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.


Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Mechanism of Lung Cancer Production Note. Viral causation is missing from this figure, because of lack of evidence.

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