Sol-gel-graphene-based fabric-phase sorptive extraction for cow and human breast milk sample cleanup for screening bisphenol A and residual dental restorative material before analysis by HPLC with diode array detection

J Sep Sci. 2017 Jun;40(12):2612-2619. doi: 10.1002/jssc.201700256. Epub 2017 May 31.


Fabric-phase sorptive extraction has already been recognized as a simple and green alternative to the conventional sorbent-based sorptive microextraction techniques, using hybrid organic-inorganic sorbent coatings chemically bonded to a flexible fabric surface. Herein, we have investigated the synergistic combination of the advanced material properties offered by sol-gel graphene sorbent and the simplicity of Fabric phase sorptive extraction approach in selectively extracting bisphenol A and residual monomers including bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate derived dental restorative materials from cow and human breast milk samples. Different coatings were evaluated. Final method development employed sol-gel graphene coated media. The main experimental parameters influencing extraction of the compounds, such as sorbent chemistry used, sample loading conditions, elution solvent, sorption stirring time, elution time, impact of protein precipitation, amount of sample, and matrix effect, were investigated and optimized. Absolute recovery values from standard solutions were 50% for bisphenol A, 78% for T triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 110% for urethane dimethacrylate, and 103% for bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, while respective absolute recovery values from milk were 30, 52, 104, and 42%. Method validation was performed according to European Decision 657/2002/EC in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision.

Keywords: bisphenol A; dental materials; milk; sol-gel graphene; sorptive extraction.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / analysis*
  • Cattle
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Dental Materials / analysis*
  • Female
  • Graphite
  • Humans
  • Milk / chemistry*
  • Milk, Human / chemistry*
  • Phenols / analysis*


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Dental Materials
  • Phenols
  • Graphite
  • bisphenol A