Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus is any degree of glucose intolerance with first diagnosis during pregnancy; it affects 3-10% of pregnancies. The presence of diabetes-related autoantibodies has shown to be able to predict the development of type 1 diabetes before hyperglycemia arises.
Objective: To recognize the prevalence of islet cell antibodies among a sample of Egyptian females with gestational diabetes and its possible relation to development of Type 1 diabetes within one year postpartum.
Methods: Our cross sectional study was conducted on 150 Egyptian pregnant females with gestational diabetes aged 19-39 years diagnosed by 75-g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. All females were subjected to full history, thorough clinical examination and laboratory measurement of anti-islet cell antibodies. Those females with positive antibodies were followed up six months and one year after delivery for their fasting insulin, fasting blood glucose and two hours post prandial glucose levels.
Results: The prevalence of pregnant females with gestational diabetes having positive anti islet cell antibodies was (44%), the prevalence of females diagnosed to have diabetes mellitus was (37.88%) six months and (51.52%) one year postpartum.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of ICAs among pregnant Egyptian females with GDM and the risk of developing type 1diabetes later in life makes screening for ICA among women with GDM important to recognize those at risk of developing type 1 diabetes later in life.
Keywords: Pregnancy; Type1 diabetes; Type2 diabetes; anti-islet cell antibodies; gestational diabetes; insulin resistance..
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