Interaction between the gut microbiome and mucosal immune system

Mil Med Res. 2017 Apr 27:4:14. doi: 10.1186/s40779-017-0122-9. eCollection 2017.


The gut microbiota, the largest symbiotic ecosystem with the host, has been shown to play important roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is caused by the imbalance between the commensal and pathogenic microbiomes. The commensal microbiome regulates the maturation of the mucosal immune system, while the pathogenic microbiome causes immunity dysfunction, resulting in disease development. The gut mucosal immune system, which consists of lymph nodes, lamina propria and epithelial cells, constitutes a protective barrier for the integrity of the intestinal tract. The composition of the gut microbiota is under the surveillance of the normal mucosal immune system. Inflammation, which is caused by abnormal immune responses, influences the balance of the gut microbiome, resulting in intestinal diseases. In this review, we briefly outlined the interaction between the gut microbiota and the immune system and provided a reference for future studies.

Keywords: Immunity; Inflammation; Microbiome.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology
  • Immunity, Innate / physiology
  • Immunity, Mucosal / physiology*
  • Intestines / immunology
  • Microbial Interactions / physiology*