Advancements in postcardiac transplant care have resulted in significant reductions in morbidity and increased life expectancy for cardiac transplant recipients. Consequently, many cardiac transplant recipients are living long enough to require subsequent noncardiac surgery. The perioperative care of heart transplant recipients presents a unique challenge as many of the common preoperative risk assessments do not apply to a transplanted heart, immunosuppressive medications have side effects and potential for drug-drug interactions, and the denervated heart results in an altered autonomic physiology and response to medications. Further adding to the challenge is that many of these noncardiac surgeries need to be performed urgently at nontransplant centers that may not be familiar with the care of these patients. This review aims to summarize the current data regarding preoperative assessment, perioperative immunosuppression management, intraoperative and anesthetic considerations, and outcomes of cardiac transplant recipients undergoing noncardiac surgery.
Keywords: heart failure; heart transplant; immunosuppression; preoperative risk assessment; surgery.