The influence on the metabolism of phenytoin of some sulfonamides given in common clinical doses has been studied. In single dose experiments sulfaphenazole increased phenytoin half-life (T/2) by 237% and decreased phenytoin metabolic clearance rate (MCR) by 67%. Sulfadiazine, sulfamethiazole, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and trimethoprim increased phenytoin T/2 by 80, 66, 39 and 51% respectively, and decreased phenytoin MCR by 45, 36, 27 and 30% respectively. Sulfamethoxazole gave a small but significant increase in phenytoin T/2 but not a corresponding fall in phenytoin MCR. No changes were found in phenytoin T/2 and MCR after treatment with sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfadimethoxine and sulfamethoxydiazine. Steady state experiments confirmed the findings of the single dose experiments. It is suggested that sulfaphenazole, sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim and trimethoprim inhibit hepatic metabolism of phenytoin.