Two serines in the distal C-terminus of the human ß1-adrenoceptor determine ß-arrestin2 recruitment

PLoS One. 2017 May 4;12(5):e0176450. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176450. eCollection 2017.


G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) undergo phosphorylation at several intracellular residues by G protein-coupled receptor kinases. The resulting phosphorylation pattern triggers arrestin recruitment and receptor desensitization. The exact sites of phosphorylation and their function remained largely unknown for the human β1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1), a key GPCR in adrenergic signal transduction and the target of widely used drugs such as β-blockers. The present study aimed to identify the intracellular phosphorylation sites in the ADRB1 and to delineate their function. The human ADRB1 was expressed in HEK293 cells and its phosphorylation pattern was determined by mass spectrometric analysis before and after stimulation with a receptor agonist. We identified a total of eight phosphorylation sites in the receptor's third intracellular loop and C-terminus. Analyzing the functional relevance of individual sites using phosphosite-deficient receptor mutants we found phosphorylation of the ADRB1 at Ser461/Ser462 in the distal part of the C-terminus to determine β-arrestin2 recruitment and receptor internalization. Our data reveal the phosphorylation pattern of the human ADRB1 and the site that mediates recruitment of β-arrestin2.

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Liquid
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Phosphorylation
  • Radioligand Assay
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1 / chemistry
  • Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1 / metabolism*
  • Serine / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • beta-Arrestin 2 / metabolism*


  • Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1
  • beta-Arrestin 2
  • Serine

Grant support

The research was supported by grants of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) and the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF). Laura Hinz received the Otto-Hess-Scholarship from the German Cardiac Society (DGK).