Context: Deficient anterior pituitary with variable immune deficiency (DAVID) syndrome is a rare disorder in which children present with symptomatic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency preceded by hypogammaglobulinemia from B-cell dysfunction with recurrent infections, called common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Subsequent whole exome sequencing studies have revealed germline heterozygous C-terminal mutations of NFKB2 as a cause of DAVID syndrome or of CVID without clinical hypopituitarism. However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no cases in which the endocrinopathy has presented in the absence of a prior clinical history of CVID.
Case description: A previously healthy 7-year-old boy with no history of clinical immunodeficiency presented with profound hypoglycemia and seizures. He was found to have secondary adrenal insufficiency and was started on glucocorticoid replacement. An evaluation for autoimmune disease, including for antipituitary antibodies, was negative. Evaluation unexpectedly revealed hypogammaglobulinemia [decreased immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA]. He had moderately reduced serotype-specific IgG responses after pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Subsequently, he was found to have growth hormone deficiency. Six years after initial presentation, whole exome sequencing revealed a de novo heterozygous NFKB2 missense mutation c.2596A>C (p.Ser866Arg) in the C-terminal region predicted to abrogate the processing of the p100 NFKB2 protein to its active p52 form.
Conclusions: Isolated early-onset ACTH deficiency is rare, and C-terminal region NFKB2 mutations should be considered as an etiology even in the absence of a clinical history of CVID. Early immunologic evaluation is indicated in the diagnosis and management of isolated ACTH deficiency.
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