Background: Autoinflammatory diseases in dogs are characterized by complex disease processes with varying clinical signs. In Shar-Pei, signs of inflammation including fever and arthritis are known to be related with a breed-specific predisposition for Shar-Pei Autoinflammatory Disease (SPAID).
Results: Clinical and histopathological examinations of two severely SPAID-affected Shar-Pei revealed signs of inflammation including fever, arthritis, and perivascular and diffuse dermatitis in both dogs. A multifocal accumulation of amyloid in different organs was found in one SPAID-affected case. Whole genome sequencing resulted in 37 variants, which were homozygous mutant private mutations in SPAID-affected Shar-Pei. Nine SNVs with predicted damaging effects and three INDELs were further investigated in 102 Shar-Pei affected with SPAID, 62 unaffected Shar-Pei and 162 controls from 11 different dog breeds. The results showed the missense variant MTBP:g.19383758G > A in MTBP to be highly associated with SPAID in Shar-Pei. In the region of this gene a large ROH (runs of homozygosity) region could be detected exclusively in the two investigated SPAID-affected Shar-Pei compared to control dog breeds. No further SPAID-associated variant with predicted high or moderate effects could be found in genes identified in ROH regions. This MTBP variant was predicted to affect the MDN2-binding protein domain and consequently promote proinflammatory reactions. In the investigated group of Shar-Pei older than six years all dogs with the mutant genotype A/A were SPAID-affected whereas SPAID-unaffected dogs harbored the homozygous wildtype (G/G). Shar-Pei with a heterozygous genotype (G/A) were shown to have a 2.13-fold higher risk for disease development, which gave evidence for an incomplete dominant mode of inheritance.
Conclusions: The results of this study give strong evidence for a variant in MTBP related with proinflammatory processes via MTBP-MDM2 pathway. Thus, these results enable a reliable detection of SPAID in Shar-Pei dogs.
Keywords: Autoinflammatory disease; MTBP; Shar-Pei; Whole genome sequencing.