Neuroprotective Effects of Citrus Fruit-Derived Flavonoids, Nobiletin and Tangeretin in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2017;16(4):387-397. doi: 10.2174/1871527316666170328113309.

Abstract

Neurodegenerative diseases, namely Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease represent a deleterious impact worldwide. Despite extensive preclinical and clinical research in neurodegenerative disorders, therapeutic strategies aimed at the prevention and chronic treatment of neurodegenerative conditions have not been successfully translated to the clinic. Therefore, the identification of novel pharmacological intervention derived from natural products is warranted. Nobiletin and tangeretin are important citrus flavonoids derived from the peel and other parts of Citrus L. genus, and have been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Apart from there antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, nobiletin and tangeretin have been shown to attenuate cholinergic deficits, reduce the abnormal accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-beta peptides, reverse N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction, ameliorate ischemic injury, inhibit hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, enhance neprilysin levels, modulate several signaling cascades, and protect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity. Taken together, these naturally occurring phytochemicals may represent beneficial drug candidates for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Parkinson’s disease; amyloid; nobiletin; tangeretin; tau.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / drug therapy*
  • Animals
  • Citrus / chemistry
  • Flavones / chemistry
  • Flavones / pharmacology*
  • Flavones / therapeutic use
  • Flavonoids / chemistry
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology*
  • Flavonoids / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Neuroprotective Agents / chemistry
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Parkinson Disease / drug therapy*
  • Phytotherapy

Substances

  • Flavones
  • Flavonoids
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • nobiletin
  • tangeretin