Vancomycin use is often associated with nephrotoxicity. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent vancomycin is directly responsible, as numerous potential risk factors for acute kidney injury frequently coexist. Herein, we critically examine available data in adult patients pertinent to this question. We review the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of vancomycin metabolism. Efficacy and safety data are discussed. The pathophysiology of vancomycin nephrotoxicity is considered. Risk factors for nephrotoxicity are enumerated, including the potential synergistic nephrotoxicity of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Suggestions for clinical practice and future research are given.
© 2017 The Authors Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.