Higher ambulatory systolic blood pressure independently associated with enlarged perivascular spaces in basal ganglia

Neurol Res. 2017 Sep;39(9):787-794. doi: 10.1080/01616412.2017.1324552. Epub 2017 May 5.


Backgrounds: Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) have been identified as a marker of cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD). Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) is the strongest predictor of hypertension-related brain damage. However, the relationship between ABP levels and EPVS is unclear.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the association between ABP levels and EPVS by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM).

Methods: We prospectively recruited inpatients for physical examinations in our hospital from May 2013 to Jun 2016. 24-hour ABPM data and cranial magnetic resonance imaging information were collected. EPVS in basal ganglia (BG) and centrum semiovale (CSO) were identified and classified into three categories by the severity. White matter hyperintensities were scored by Fazekas scale. Spearman correlation analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between ABP levels and EPVS.

Results: A total of 573 subjects were enrolled in this study. 24-hour, day and night systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels were positively related to higher numbers of EPVS in BG (24-hour SBP: r = 0.23, p < 0.01; day SBP: r = 0.25, p < 0.01; night SBP: r = 0.30, p < 0.01). The association was unchanged after controlling for confounders by multiple logistic regression analysis. 24-hour and day diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels increased with an increasing degree of EPVS in CSO (p = 0.04 and 0.049, respectively). But the association disappeared after adjusting for confounders. Spearman correlation analysis indicated that ABP levels were not associated with higher numbers of EPVS in CSO (p > 0.05). DBP levels were not independently associated with the severity of EPVS in BG and CSO.

Conclusion: Higher SBP levels were independently associated with EPVS in BG, but not in CSO, which supported EPVS in BG to be a marker of CSVD. Pathogenesis of EPVS in BG and CSO might be different.

Keywords: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring; Cerebral small vessel disease; ambulatory blood pressure; blood pressure; enlarged perivascular space.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Basal Ganglia / diagnostic imaging
  • Basal Ganglia / pathology*
  • Blood Pressure / physiology*
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory
  • Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases / pathology*
  • Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Lateral Ventricles / diagnostic imaging
  • Lateral Ventricles / pathology
  • Lipoproteins, HDL / blood
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / blood
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Statistics as Topic
  • White Matter / diagnostic imaging


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Lipoproteins, HDL
  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human