Oak kombucha protects against oxidative stress and inflammatory processes

Chem Biol Interact. 2017 Jun 25;272:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2017.05.001. Epub 2017 May 3.


Black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha; however other sources such as oak leaves infusions can be used for the same purpose. Almost any white oak species have been used for medicinal applications by some ethnic groups in Mexico and could be also suitable for preparing kombucha analogues from oak (KAO). The objective of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects of KAO by examining its modulation ability on macrophage-derived TNF-alpha and IL-6. Herbal infusions from oak and black tea were fermented by kombucha consortium during seven days at 28 °C. Chemical composition was determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity of samples against oxidative damage caused by H2O2 in monocytes activated (macrophages) was explored. Additionally, it was determined the anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages; in particular, the nitric oxide (NO), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production was assessed. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly reduced by the sample treatment. Likewise, NO production was lower in treatment with kombucha and KAO compared with LPS-stimulated macrophages. Fermented beverages of oak effectively down-regulated the production of NO, while pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in macrophages were stimulated with LPS. Additionally, phytochemical compounds present in KAO decrease oxidative stress.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory; Antioxidant; Fermented beverages; Kombucha; Quercus.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / chemistry*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Antioxidants / chemistry*
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Down-Regulation / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / toxicity
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / toxicity
  • Macrophages / cytology
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Plant Leaves / chemistry
  • Plant Leaves / metabolism
  • Quercus / chemistry*
  • Quercus / metabolism
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • Tea / chemistry
  • Tea / metabolism
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Phenols
  • Tea
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Hydrogen Peroxide