Aim: Vitamin D supplementation and higher 25(OH)-vitamin D concentration are associated with reduced risk of acute respiratory infection. This study examined whether there is a similar association between higher serum 25(OH)D concentration and lower risk of chronic otitis media with effusion (COME).
Methods: In a case-control study, serum 25(OH)D concentration in children referred for tympanostomy tube placement for COME (n = 178) was compared to that of healthy children randomly sampled from primary care practices (n = 179). Subjects aged three and four years were recruited in Auckland, New Zealand between May 2011 and November 2013. Blood samples were collected from the children, and their guardians were interviewed. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression.
Results: In a multivariable analysis, higher serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a lower risk of COME (OR: 0.86 per 10 nmol/L; 95% CI 0.77-0.97) after adjusting for age, sex, deprivation index, ethnicity, tobacco smoke exposure, duration of breastfeeding and season of blood sampling. Further adjustment for eight additional risk factors did not change the result.
Conclusion: This finding supports further investigation into whether the risk of COME could be reduced by increasing serum 25(OH)D concentration through increased sun exposure, higher dietary intake or vitamin D supplementation.
Keywords: Otitis media with effusion; Preschool children; Respiratory infections; Risk factors; Vitamin D.
©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.