ERdj5, composed of an N-terminal J domain followed by six thioredoxin-like domains, is the largest protein disulfide isomerase family member and functions as an ER-localized disulfide reductase that enhances ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Our previous studies indicated that ERdj5 comprises two regions, the N- and C-terminal clusters, separated by a linker loop and with distinct functional roles in ERAD. We here present a new crystal structure of ERdj5 with a largely different cluster arrangement relative to that in the original crystal structure. Single-molecule observation by high-speed atomic force microscopy visualized rapid cluster movement around the flexible linker loop, indicating the highly dynamic nature of ERdj5 in solution. ERdj5 mutants with a fixed-cluster orientation compromised the ERAD enhancement activity, likely because of less-efficient reduction of aberrantly formed disulfide bonds and prevented substrate transfer in the ERdj5-mediated ERAD pathway. We propose a significant role of ERdj5 conformational dynamics in ERAD of disulfide-linked oligomers.
Keywords: ERAD; ERdj5; X-ray crystal structure analysis; high-speed AFM; single-molecule analysis.
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