Predictors of Smoking among the Secondary High School Boy Students Based on the Health Belief Model

Int J Prev Med. 2017 Apr 13;8:24. doi: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_264_16. eCollection 2017.


Background: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for health and also health problems, such as heart diseases, especially for young people. This study aimed to investigate the effect of factors related to smoking among the secondary high school students in the city of Marivan (Kurdistan-Iran), in 2015, based on the constructs of health belief model (HBM).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 470 secondary high school students in Marivan in 2015. The samples were selected by random cluster sampling. A question with four sections was used to collect data (demographic questions, knowledge section, attitude section, and questions related to e constructs of HBM).

Results: According to the results, the correlation of smoking was stronger with attitude (r = 0.269 and odds ratio = 0.89) but weaker with perceived barriers (r = 0.101). There was not a significant correlation between smoking behavior and knowledge of the harms of smoking (r = -0.005). Moreover, Cues to action was effective predictor of smoking behavior (r = 0.259).

Conclusions: The findings of this study show that the prevalence of smoking in the studied sample is somewhat lower than other regions of Iran, but it should be noted that if no interventions are done to prevent smoking in this age group. The findings of the study also showed that the structure of attitudes, self-efficacy, and Cues to action are the strongest predictors of smoking among students. Albeit, attitude was strongest predictor of smoking that shows the prevalence of smoking can be reduced by focusing in this part. Considering the mean age of participants (16/2 ± 0.25 years), that shows the riskiest period for smoking is 16 years and authorities can make change in policies of cigarette selling only for over 18 years.

Keywords: Health belief model; smoking; students.