GAD65: a prospective vaccine for treating Type 1 diabetes?

Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2017 Aug;17(8):1033-1043. doi: 10.1080/14712598.2017.1328495. Epub 2017 May 25.


In spite of modern techniques, the burden for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) will not disappear and T1D remains a life-threatening disease causing severe complications and increased mortality. We have to learn how to preserve residual insulin secretion or even increase beta cell regeneration. This would give a milder disease, simpler treatment and perhaps even cure. Thus, there are good reasons to try therapies that may preserve beta cell function. Areas covered: In this review the author reviews the literature and registered ongoing trials using GAD-alum put in relation to the high number of published different immune interventions. Expert opinion: GAD-alum treatment is safe, tolerable and easy for the patients and healthcare. It seems probable that treatment with GAD65-alum 20 µg sc can preserve residual beta cell function in T1D, but efficacy needs to be improved. This may be achieved by the use of combination therapies and new approaches for administration.

Keywords: GAD65-alum; Type 1 diabetes; children; combination therapy; immune intervention; intra-lymphatic treatment; prevention.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Alum Compounds / chemistry
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / prevention & control*
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / chemistry
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / metabolism
  • Insulin Secretion
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / immunology
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism
  • Vaccination


  • Alum Compounds
  • Insulin
  • aluminum sulfate
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase