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. 2017 May 6;17(5):1043.
doi: 10.3390/s17051043.

FM-UWB: Towards a Robust, Low-Power Radio for Body Area Networks

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Free PMC article

FM-UWB: Towards a Robust, Low-Power Radio for Body Area Networks

Vladimir Kopta et al. Sensors (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The Frequency Modulated Ultra-Wideband (FM-UWB) is known as a low-power, low-complexity modulation scheme targeting low to moderate data rates in applications such as wireless body area networks. In this paper, a thorough review of all FM-UWB receivers and transmitters reported in literature is presented. The emphasis is on trends in power reduction that exhibit an improvement by a factor 20 over the past eight years, showing the high potential of FM-UWB. The main architectural and circuit techniques that have led to this improvement are highlighted. Seldom explored potential of using higher data rates and more complex modulations is demonstrated as a way to increase energy efficiency of FM-UWB. Multi-user communication over a single Radio Frequency (RF) channel is explored in more depth and multi-channel transmission is proposed as an extension of standard FM-UWB. The two techniques provide means of decreasing network latency, improving performance, and allow the FM-UWB to accommodate the increasing number of sensor nodes in the emerging applications such as High-Density Wireless Sensor Networks.

Keywords: FM; Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA); UWB; Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN); low-power; multi-user; transceiver.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Illustration of the WiseSkin concept, wireless sensor nodes embedded in an artificial skin provide a sense of touch to the patient.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Principle of FM-UWB signal generation.
Figure 3
Figure 3
FM-UWB receiver architectures reported in literature: (a) delay-Line demodulator at RF; (b) regenerative demodulator; (c) baseband delay-Line demodulator and (d) dual-band-pass-filter demodulator (balanced frequency discriminator).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Frequency-to-amplitude conversion characteristic of different FM demodulators found in literature.
Figure 5
Figure 5
FM-UWB transmitters and receivers, evolution of power consumption. Type of demodulator used in each receiver is indicated on the graph.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Test setup used for measuring performance of FM-UWB receiver with different sub-carrier modulations.
Figure 7
Figure 7
BER for different data rates.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Over the air measurement (a) with direct line of sight and (b) without the direct line of sight. Signal is transmitted at −15 dBm, distance between the transmit and receive antenna is roughly 2 m, 100 kb/s, and 2-FSK modulation is used.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Over the air measurement (a) with direct line of sight and (b) without the direct line of sight. Signal is transmitted at −15 dBm, distance between the transmit and receive antenna is roughly 2 m, 100 kb/s, and 2-FSK modulation is used.
Figure 9
Figure 9
SER for 2-FSK, 4-FSK and 8-FSK sub-carrier modulation.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Demodulated spectrum for different symbol rates and different sub-carrier modulation complexity: (a) 100 kb/s, 2-FSK modulation; (b) 400 kb/s, 2-FSK modulation; (c) 100 ksym/s, 4-FSK modulation and (d) 100 ksym/s 8-FSK modulation.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Multiple transmitters sharing the same RF band.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Block diagram of a single sub-channel demodulator.
Figure 13
Figure 13
SC-FDMA with equal power transmitters, (a) BER curves for different number of users and (b) spectrum of the demodulated signal for the case of four sub-channels.
Figure 14
Figure 14
Calculation and measurement of sensitivity degradation due to the presence of multiple users.
Figure 15
Figure 15
FSK sub-channel frequency allocation and limits due to distortion.
Figure 16
Figure 16
Single transmitter broadcasting on multiple sub-channels.
Figure 17
Figure 17
Spectrum of the transmitted signal in the case of (a) standard FM-UWB signal and (b) FM-UWB signal with multiple sub-carrier channels.
Figure 18
Figure 18
Spectrum of the demodulated signal (a) with and (b) without spacing between sub-carrier channels.
Figure 19
Figure 19
BER for a single transmitter broadcasting on multiple sub-channels.

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